Friday, May 22, 2020

The Sheer Size Of The Prison System - 910 Words

The sheer size of the prison system lends itself to many layers of profiteering. As many as 90% of jails charge prisoners various fees during their incarceration. These fees range from charges for medical care, booking, transportation--even housing fees, among others. In fact, in order to pay for the fees assessed by the prison, the friends and family members that send money to prisoners have to pay exorbitant fees, as high as 45%. Some of the largest banks, Bank of America and JPMorgan Chase, are able to profit from this exploitive practice because they have a monopoly on money transfers to prisoners which they obtained through no bid government contracts. Corizon, America’s largest prison healthcare contractor, earns about $1.4 billion in revenue annually. They’re able to maximize their profits, in a predictable manner, by neglecting the services that are expected of them. For example, they refuse to treat Hepatitis C. â€Å"We save money because we skip the ambulance and bring them right to the morgue,† says Diane Jackson, nurse for Corizon. There is also a $1.2 billion market for the few companies which contract for prison inmate phone calls. Those calls are charged at rates far above market prices, as much as $17 for a 15 minute call. Plenty of corporations also profit from extremely cheap prison labor. Prison laborers are typically paid about $1 an hour. Many are paid nothing, but they can earn time off of their sentence. There are obvious ethical questionsShow MoreRelatedThe Negative Effects Of Prison Overcrowding1524 Words   |  7 PagesPrison Overcrowding is a topic that isn’t brought up much in the media. However, it’s one that should be addressed more than it is. Overcrowding puts Correctional Officer’s safety at risk as well as the safety of inmates. There must be a way to reduce the number of inmates or possibly build additional prisons. Prison overcrowding has many negative effects ranging from sickness, to even death. The first article I want to discuss is â€Å"Underfunded, Overcrowded State Prisons Struggle With Reform†. OnRead MoreSociologists Are Angry And You Should Be Too : Reflection On Readings Essay1747 Words   |  7 Pagesthe realities of living in this country. The American systems of government and business are working against almost everyone that is not a wealthy, cisgender, heterosexual, white male. This paper will be covering themes discussed in Max Weber’s â€Å"Class, Status, Party†, C. Wright Mills’ â€Å"The Power Elite†, G. William Domhoff’s â€Å"Who Rules America† and Bruce Western’s â€Å"Incarceration, Unemployment and Inequality† to express how the established system of the United States of America is stacked against womenRead MoreRacism And The Criminal Justice System1739 Words   |  7 PagesWith so many news stories and incidents surrounding the topic of race and the police these days, it is not surprisi ng for people to come to the conclusion that racism may exist within the criminal justice system. We will be taking a deeper look into the problem to find out what other possible determinants may play a role in deciding how an officer makes an arrest or stop and continue to analyze what is happening in those contexts. The issues surrounding the topic of race is like the two faces ofRead MoreVicious And Dangerous Sports The Olympic Games1274 Words   |  6 Pagesand watch two men batter each other to pulp in a boxing ring, that we should be relatively unmoved by the sight of one or a number of racing cars crashing and bursting into flames. Let us not deceive ourselves. Any talk of the sporting spirit is sheer hypocrisy-(Ð »Ã ¸Ã'†Ð µÃ ¼Ã µÃ'€Ð ¸Ã µ). People take part in violent sports because of the high rewards they bring. Spectators are willing to pay vast sums of money to see violence. A world heavyweight championship match, for instance, is front page news. Millions ofRead MoreIn Defense of Liberty and Education for All1626 Words   |  7 Pageseducation has become too commonplace and that the prestige and honor of higher learning has diminished. Essentially, he thinks the American society has allowed too many unqualified people a chance to earn a degree and he criticizes the public educational system in order to bring back elitism in education. In America, the number of students achieving University education has grown substantially in recent decades. Henry has noticed this trend in America and that Half a century ago, a high school diplomaRead MoreThe Shawshank Redemption Essays3087 Words   |  13 PagesThomas Newman and is filled with impressive acting, especially from Morgan Freeman (Red). However, possibly the most imposing character in the film, is the oppressive Shawshank State Prison itself, which looms in every scene. The Shawshank Redemption builds considerable impact as a prison drama that defies the conventions of the genre (violence, brutality, riots) to illustrate its theme of faith, friendship, survival and most importantly hope. â€Å"Fear can hold you prisonerRead More The Ethics of Prison Privatization2393 Words   |  10 PagesHow true is Christie’s warning that an increasingly privatized penal service threatens the ethics and effectiveness of the criminal justice system? More aspects of the penal system are now privatized, and are set to increase. This includes the privatization of such services as prisons, electronic tags, catering companies, probation work or prison escort services. David Taylor-Smith, head of the world’s biggest security firm, G4S says he expects private companies will be running large parts ofRead More-In Furtado Et Al.’S (2010) Article On Collective Intelligence1690 Words   |  7 Pagesagencies to collect and analyze information from a larger sample size and address crimes that are problematic for being under-reported. One main of the issues that they discussed in regards to using online mass collaborations is the lack of credibility that comes with relying on anonymous sources. One can simply address this issue by programing algorithms and pattern recognition programs to verify sources and/or implementing a reputation system where continued accuracy and validity can promote anonymousRead MoreOverpopulation Is A Serious Problem1442 Words   |  6 Pagesbillion, India’s population is projected to soar from 930 million to 1.53 billion (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division 5). In the Middle East and North Africa, the population is expected to more than double its size, and in Sub-Saharan Africa, it is expected to triple (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division 14). Thomas Robert Malthus was one of the first to study population. Malthus stated that when a population eventuallyRead MoreImportance Of Federalism And How The United States Structure Is Based Upon This Form Of Government2428 Words   |  10 Pagespolicies in regards to an assortment of public matters, as well as learning about various contemporary public policy issues and various interest groups that provide support for legislative reform. Federalism Policy Restraint Foremost, federalism is â€Å"a system of government in which power is shared between a central or federal government and other governments, such as states or provinces† (Birkland, 2011, p. 61). The U.S. Constitution possesses this structure of government that permits authority (power)

Friday, May 8, 2020

A Comprehensive Stress Management Plan Based On The Following

1) Develop a comprehensive stress management plan based on the following: a) Identify four major ongoing stressors in your life. For each stressor, describe why it is a stressor for you. You need to discuss a variety of areas such as personality, lifestyle, self-talk, and/or beliefs. b) For each of your four stressors describe how you know when you are stressed. What specific indicators or symptoms do you use to determine that you are under stress? Your indicators of stress may be physical symptoms, mental/emotional changes, or behavior changes. Include in your answer, how different levels or type of stress has different and/or more stress symptoms. c) Describe coping techniques that you have tried that did not help you cope with your stressors. Explain why each of these techniques did not work for you by giving examples. Include in your examples the circumstances and the reactions of yourself and others. Your answer must include at least 3 techniques. d) Choose and explain stress management techniques that can help you cope with each of your four stressors. Do not use the same techniques for each stressor. Your answer must include at least four different coping strategies and the circumstances when you have or plan to use them. For each stressor take into account: techniques or lifestyle behaviors that can prevent a stressor from occurring; techniques that can change your thinking about the stressor; ways to calm yourself or change the situation while the stressor isShow MoreRelatedCritically Evaluate, in Relation to the Common Law Duty of Care, the Liability of Employers for Psychiatric Illnesses Suffered by Employees and Arising as the Result of Employees Being Made to Work Under Stressful Conditions.1497 Words   |  6 Pagesfinancial quarter increases, it is the workforce who are put under undue stress. Ranging from unreasonably high productivity standards, to sub-standard and hazardous work environments, workers face severa l potential risks to their mental and physical health. The paradox lies in the fact that an unhealthy and burnt-out workforce is less productive than that which is relaxed and contented. But despite this, work-related stress continues to be a nagging problem facing business leaders and workers alikeRead MoreThe Importance Of A Water Promotion Program710 Words   |  3 Pagestherefore it makes sense that there is only a year long development plan focused on literacy and academic standing as opposed to the standard holistic three-year development plan (Harold Panabaker, 2017-2018). However, while academic success is important there is a greater need to focus on the health and wellbeing of the students with regards to the development plan. Therefore, focusing on a smaller part of your development plan, especially the trauma informed practice, as well as the physical activityRead MoreCase Study Management : Case Management1315 Words   |  6 Pageslaunched case management. Case mana gement not only effectively decreased the medical expenses, but also guaranteed the patients can get the necessary medical service they need. According to American Case Management Association, a non-profit organization that support the practice of case management, case management is a collaborative process of assessment, planning, facilitation, care coordination, evaluation, and advocacy for options and services to meet an individual’s and family’s comprehensive healthRead MoreComprehensive Staffing Plan1257 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Comprehensive Staffing Plan: As the director of human resources in a privately-held, mid-sized engineering and manufacturing firm, one of the most important roles is to develop a comprehensive staffing plan. The staffing plan for this organization should provide details about the strategies to recruit, hire and provide on-boarding activities for 20 new engineers within eight months. The preparation of the comprehensive staffing plan for this firm would require critical consideration becauseRead MorePreparedness and Emergency Management1355 Words   |  6 PagesA Case Study of Knowledge Transfer Between Preparedness and Emergency Management Thomas R. Hamblin University of Massachusetts at Lowell Abstract This paper examines a case study about the transfer of knowledge between preparedness and emergency response as conducted by Kerstin Erikkson of Lund, Sweden University. Erikkson (2009) conducted the case study by analyzing emergency response following Gudrun, a storm with hurricane force wind gusts that struck the South of Sweden in January 2005Read MoreDiabetes Case Study1337 Words   |  6 Pages Besides this, insulin pumps are not more effective than injections at helping people with type 1 diabetes control their blood sugar levels and people with type 2 diabetes can control their glucose level by following a healthy meal plan and losing excess weight and by taking medications. The medications will often change during the course of the disease for each person. Insulin also is usually used with type 2 diabetes to control glycaemia (National Diabetes statistics report, 2014). The people haveRead MoreEthics And Public Service1559 Words   |  7 Pagesdevelopment curriculum, desig n a comprehensive ethics course, which will provide a basis for future and advanced courses in ethics to build. Finally, concerning fundamental competencies is the introduction of the process or concept of lifelong learning. Critical to any successful succession planning process is the concept of lifelong learning. The importance of this concept has been demonstrated throughout this project. It is imperative that any basic leadership curriculum stress the importance of thisRead MoreHelping Caregivers Overcome The Mental And Physical Stress Of Caring For Hospice Patients Essay1538 Words   |  7 Pages Helping caregivers overcome the mental physical stress of caring for hospice patients Roberto Acosta New Mexico State University October 28, 2016 Helping caregivers overcome the mental physical stress of caring for hospice patients Caregivers play an integral role in improving the quality of life for hospice patients. Most of the individuals involved in caring for the terminally ill are family members. However, caring for terminally ill patients can adversely affect the caregiver’sRead MoreHowe 2 Ski Case Study1087 Words   |  5 Pagessharing, and gainsharing plans. What plan or plans would you recommend that Howe look at most closely and why? Lump sum bonuses are a form of performance pay bonus. Defined as â€Å"bonuses †¦ earned at the end of a specified time period, such as monthly, quarterly, or annually, when a salesperson achieves a specific level of sales or sales quota† (Quast), they are utilized frequently in the sales industry. The dilemma, in this case, is that quality and productivity is not based only on sales. The moldersRead MoreProviding Superior Levels Of Care1375 Words   |  6 PagesCombining quality patient service and operational expertise to maintain superior levels of care. Compassionate, dedicated, and results-driven/results-focused Registered Nurse with 1+ years of experience in the Emergency Department who provides comprehensive emergency medical care and support to patients. Displays dedication and determination in all endeavors with diligent attention to detail for optimal end results. Excels at managing health care needs within crisis/life-threatening situations that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Night Creature Dark Moon Chapter Three Free Essays

string(23) " time I came near him\." Werewolves are nocturnal – just like the wolves they resemble. Even underground, beneath fluorescent lights, they continue to behave like the animals they are. Therefore, at this time of the day, the majority of my guests were sleeping. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Creature: Dark Moon Chapter Three or any similar topic only for you Order Now I hurried down the corridor. While most rooms held a hint of light, the better to simulate the muted rays of the sun, the last was completely dark. As dark as Billy Bailey’s soul would be, if he had one. In front of each cell stood a table with equipment appropriate for that subject’s experiment. I checked the slides I’d made with Billy’s blood. I wasn’t sure what I was looking for; I only hoped that when I saw it something would click. But after years of searching, I wasn’t sure I’d ever find the answer. A body slammed against the wall with enough force to shake the barrier. Calmly I lifted my gaze from the microscope to the naked man plastered against the see-through sector of his prison. â€Å"Billy.† I made a notation on his chart. â€Å"She-bitch,† he said in a conversational tone. â€Å"Redundant,† I murmured, and he slammed his fist into the glass. He wanted me to shriek, to gasp, at least to jump. But I rarely did. Why give him any more satisfaction than he’d already had in this lifetime? Out of the corner of my eye I watched Billy slither back into the gloom. Only then did I release the breath I’d been holding. Billy Bailey scared the living hell out of me. I never should have asked that he be brought here, but I was desperate. I’d tried everything I could think of to devise an antidote that would put people back the way they’d been before they were bitten. I kept coming up empty. I had invented a serum that eased a werewolf’s craving for human blood on the night of a full moon. As well as a counteragent that eradicated the virus if the victim was injected before their first change. Sadly, the remedy didn’t work on the already furry. I glanced into the darkness where Billy hovered, waiting for me to make a mistake. â€Å"You need more blood,† he said. His voice slid out of shadows, and I stifled a shiver. Billy was always watching me. He knew I was something, but he wasn’t sure what. Because I was like him, and then again I wasn’t. As in the legends, most werewolves are created by being bitten. There are other ways for humans to become furry, of course. The list is as endless as the monsters. I was a perfect example. I’d spent the first twenty-plus years of my life blissfully unaware of werewolves. Then one night I had just†¦ become. I was a werewolf, but I didn’t have the demon – shorthand in the J-S society for the psychotic joy in murdering anyone who crossed our path. Killing sickened me. Nevertheless, I was still possessed every month by the lust for blood. Hence my first invention. Yet even when I took my medicine, I continued to change whenever the moon was full. I had little choice. However, no one but myself and Edward were aware of my secret. Which was why my very existence was driving Billy more insane than he already was. I glanced up as he materialized again from the darkness. Billy refused to wear clothes. I’m sure he sensed that his nudity disturbed me, though not because of any sexual interest. His extreme height, incredible breadth, and large†¦ feet would disturb anyone, even without the crisscross of scars that peppered his chest and back. Since any scars received before a person became a werewolf remained, I’d come to the conclusion that in his previous life, Billy had been a very bad boy. â€Å"Your arm, please.† Billy’s lips tightened. Despite the bulletproof glass, I felt the fury pulsing from him like a flame. Yet his gray eyes were the coldest I’d ever known. Just looking into them for an instant could make me nauseous for an hour. â€Å"What if I don’t want to give you my arm?† With Billy everything was a struggle. â€Å"You know I can make you.† He ran forward, banging against the clear wall again. Sometimes I thought Billy wasn’t the brightest crayon in the box. How many times did he have to test the glass before he believed it was impenetrable? â€Å"It’s no use, Billy.† Billy had been a trigger away from oblivion when I’d requested his presence in my compound. After chasing him for decades, Edward hadn’t wanted to let Billy live. He was a very old werewolf. No one knew how old, and Billy wasn’t saying. He’d been very difficult to apprehend since he didn’t play well with others. Wolves are social animals, werewolves, too. Very few live their lifetimes alone. They seek out those like themselves and create a pack. A lone wolf is not only a dangerous animal, but mighty hard to find running loose in the forests and large cities of the world. A needle in a haystack had nothing on Billy. His size made me think Viking, except he was as swarthy as a Hun. The shape of his face recalled Cro-Magnon man, accented by his shaggy black hair. No matter when Billy had been born, no matter when he was made, the fact remained, he was ancient, deadly, and he’d had practice being crazy for longer than I’d had practice at anything. â€Å"When I get out of here I’m going to fuck you. First in this form and then the other.† He lowered his hand and began to massage himself. â€Å"I’m going to screw you until you scream. I’m going to fuck you until you die.† Though my hands were trembling, I lifted my gaze and met his without flinching. â€Å"You’re never going to get out of here, Billy. Never.† He recited his fantasies of rape, bondage, and torture every time I came near him. You read "Night Creature: Dark Moon Chapter Three" in category "Essay examples" They did wonders for my guilt over keeping men and women in cages. They weren’t human. Not really. Not anymore. I snapped on a pair of gloves, lifted a syringe, and pushed a button on the wall of the cell. A whirring noise preceded the presentation of the contraption for Billy’s arm. He was supposed to place his forearm in an indentation. Manacles would clamp down, and I could draw blood without risk of injury. Instead of following procedure, Billy ripped the device from the wall. Sighing, I tossed the gloves and syringe onto the table, as a steel door slid over the hole in the glass. I’d wanted Billy for this very reason. He was the oldest living werewolf on record. He couldn’t have existed for the centuries I suspected without incredible strength. I was hoping powerful blood would allow me to cure a powerful virus. I considered my options, which were few. I’d tested the other werewolves throughout the cycle of the moon. None of them had been any help. I needed to test Billy’s blood tonight, and every night for the next week. I couldn’t drug him; that would throw off the results. I’d have to restrain him, which was as frightening as it was difficult. Billy smirked. He knew what I was thinking, planning, and he couldn’t wait. A frantic howling erupted from the speaker on the wall. The real wolves, which I kept outside. Glancing at the clock, I bit my lip. Not even close to their usual feeding time. Perhaps a raccoon had trotted past the outdoor run. Done a little â€Å"na, na, na, na, na† dance on the other side of the fence. That always set them off. The howls turned into yips, then lowered to whimpers. Something wasn’t right. â€Å"They sound upset.† Billy bared his teeth in a grin that was more of a snarl. The wolves erupted again, and the hair on my arms tingled. â€Å"You’d better check on them.† He tilted his head. â€Å"But that isn’t your job, is it?† I frowned. How did he know so damned much about me when he was locked in down here? â€Å"I wonder what you’re afraid of. Then I imagine bringing it to you.† Billy sidled close enough to the glass that his ever-present erection thumped against it. He started giving himself another hand job, no doubt excited at the prospect of my fear. â€Å"Big, bad Jger-Sucher† His voice had gone breathy. â€Å"Oh, yeah. Be scared, baby.† I turned away. I was going to have to take Edward’s advice and get rid of Billy. He was too crazy, even for this place. The elevator’s whir was a soothing sound, as was the click of my heels along the tile floor leading to the back door. I was headed away from Billy, the basement, and the compound. What wasn’t to like? After punching in the code to release the alarm, I stepped through, then lifted my face to the sky. Dusk approached. I’d been downstairs longer than I thought. I always lost track of time when I was working. A security camera shared wall space with a machine gun that could be operated from the inside. Edward spared no expense to keep the compound impenetrable – except from the FBI. I slipped off my heels and shoved my feet into the ancient sneakers I kept near the back door. I didn’t come out here very often, but when I did I always changed shoes. High heels and a dirt trail went together like spaghetti and tuna fish. I set off down the path, my feet sliding around inside shoes that were made to be worn with sweat socks. The fence began about thirty yards from the compound and encircled a living area of several miles. Though much smaller than the typical territory of a wolf pack, the reduced size was necessary in order to keep the animals close enough for observation. Still, a prison was a prison no matter how we pretended otherwise. Inside, the four adults and two pups had stopped howling, although they crouched at the edge of the trees as if frightened. I’d done some initial experiments with them, but wolves weren’t werewolves. Just as werewolves weren’t people. These hadn’t been of any help. As soon as they saw me, the wolves scuttled even farther into the shadows. Like Billy, they knew I wasn’t what I appeared and stayed as far from me as they could. Sighing, I turned, and my heart slammed against my chest. Nic stood a few feet away. How had he snuck up on me? No one did. Perhaps my senses had become muted from too much easy living. â€Å"They wouldn’t let me in,† he said. My mouth moved but nothing came out. Nic didn’t seem to notice my sudden inability to speak. He jerked his chin at the wolves. â€Å"What’s with them?† â€Å"I – I’m not sure.† There. I could talk. â€Å"They were howling. Upset.† I frowned. â€Å"Have you been lurking around out here?† That might explain why the wolves were acting strangely, although they were used to humans. The guards took care of their needs, so Nick’s presence alone shouldn’t have set them off. I glanced toward the compound, narrowed my eyes on the security camera. However, Nic’s presence should have alerted the guard – especially since I’d told him Nic wasn’t welcome here. â€Å"I left,† Nic answered. â€Å"When I came back your goon wouldn’t let me talk to you.† â€Å"There’s nothing else to say.† â€Å"I disagree.† He crossed the few feet separating us and flicked a finger toward the animals. â€Å"Are these wolves infected?† His shoulder brushed against mine, and I nearly blurted â€Å"Infected?† as if I had no idea what he was talking about. That single touch, which wasn’t a touch at all but an accident – cloth against cloth, not skin against skin – made me remember far too many things. The taste of his mouth in the darkness. The scent of his hair covered with rain. The length of his legs tangled with mine. We’d never had sex, but we’d done just about everything else. I’d wanted him with all the pent-up passion of a deprived youth. Never having had him only served to make Nic Franklin the subject of every one of my fantasies. â€Å"No,† I snapped, clenching my hands until my nails bit into my palms. â€Å"These aren’t infected.† â€Å"But – â€Å" â€Å"I need healthy wolves, too. I can’t cure a disease if I don’t know what its opposite looks like.† Which was true. I was trying to cure lycanthropy, a virus that made men into wolves – or something like them. Nic stared into the woods along with me. The man I remembered would pick at a problem until he had the answer, an annoying trait, which would have made him a terrific trial lawyer. Probably made him an even better FBI agent. I only hoped he wouldn’t pick at the mystery of the J-S society until it unraveled. My boss would do anything to keep us in business. He knew, as did I, that we saved more lives than we lost. What we did was important, and we had to be allowed to keep doing it. I rested my palm against the chain-link fence. I should go inside, but out here in the forest, with my back to the stone compound, I could almost forget what life was like in there. Nic’s fingers covered mine. His hand was large and dark, both gentle and rough. Startled, my gaze flicked to his, and he kissed me. In an instant I was young again; I still had hope and a future. All the love rushed back, filling me up yet leaving me achingly empty. No matter how much I touched him it had never been enough. He tasted the same – like red wine on a cold winter night. His heat had always melted my ice. With Nic I’d been warm, safe, alive. I hadn’t felt that way since. Which was the only reason I didn’t shove him away as I should have. Opening my mouth, I welcomed him in, trailed my tongue along his crooked eye tooth. He moaned and crowded me against the fence, aligning our bodies just right. I forgot where I was, who I was, and who he was, loosening his jacket and tie, then several buttons of his shirt, so I could slip my fingers inside and trace the soft, curling hair that matted his chest. His muscles shuddered and flexed. Calluses he hadn’t had seven years ago caught on my panty hose as he traced his hands up my thighs and beneath my skirt. We shouldn’t have been doing this for more reasons than one. The most important, the security camera through which the guard was probably getting a year’s worth of jollies. The thought made me stiffen, but I couldn’t escape. My shoulders to the chain link, my front was plastered to Nic. He tugged on my lip with his teeth, then lifted me just enough to grind us together in the best, or perhaps the worst, possible way. I forgot all about the camera. Right now, I didn’t give a damn who saw me. I needed†¦ something. Or maybe someone. A body slammed between my shoulder blades, and I grunted at the impact. If not for Nic, I would have fallen. He lifted his head; his eyes widened and he loosened his hold. â€Å"What the hell?† I spun around. The four adult wolves had gone berserk, throwing themselves at the steel fence, growling and snarling. The two pups slunk back and forth at the edge of the tree line. Whining periodically, they waited and they watched, but they didn’t come any closer. â€Å"You said they weren’t rabid.† Nic’s arm was still around me, my right side pressed to his left. I moved away. I couldn’t be close to him and think straight. â€Å"They weren’t. I mean, they aren’t† â€Å"That looks like rabid to me.† He frowned at the spittle dripping from their muzzles and the rolling whites of their eyes. I’d tested these wolves inside out. There was nothing wrong with them. Present psychotic outbreak aside. I studied the animals more closely. They were scared but not of Nic. They were angry but not at me. Instead, they continued to hit the fence, slaver, snarl, and stare at the compound as if it held something they’d enjoy tearing into bloody pieces. Contrary to popular belief, wolves aren’t vicious – unless starved or rabid. My wolves were neither. I’d bet my life on it. Which meant†¦ I took one step in the direction of the compound, and the building blew sky high. How to cite Night Creature: Dark Moon Chapter Three, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Supporting Childrens Care Learning and Development

Introduction The society highly values children. Childcare is currently a shared responsibility. Parents, teachers and all other stakeholders have a role to play in ensuring that a child grows up in an environment that is conducive for its growth. As Hansen (2007, p. 76) states, a child requires a lot of attention, especially at early stages of life because it is at this stage that a child starts to comprehend the immediate environment.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Supporting Children’s Care Learning and Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At an age of six to seven, a child would be learning a lot from the immediate environment and from the people he constantly interacts with. As Aristotle (1998, p. 89) notes, a child would try to practice what it sees the adult doing, or what it watches on movies. A parent therefore has a responsibility to regulate what a child consumes at this age. The issue of childcare requires a collaboration of the parent, the teacher and the teaching assistant on a very close basis. The parent is always with the child in the evening, on weekends and other holidays. During this days, Nussbaum (2002, p. 56) observes that a parent has the best opportunity to monitor the behavior of the child and understand it better. For this reason, he is in the best position to inform the teacher and the teaching assistant some peculiar behavior of the child or some important information that would help the teacher and the teaching assistant manage the child to the expectation of all the stakeholders. Zipes (1997, p. 67) says that the teacher and the teaching assistant has the opportunity of being with the child for the better part of the day. They have the opportunity of monitoring the child closely, especially without its awareness. From this, they are able to detect the general behavior of the child that would be of concern. Leedy and Ormrod (2005, p. 89) say tha t this message should be communicated to the parent so that the parent knows his or her child better and therefore be in a better position to handle it when at home. Learning at this stage is at its very basic level. The teaching assistant has the role of ensuring that these children learn the basics in various subjects like Science, Mathematics and Languages. According to Cogan and Webb (2002, p. 54), children at this age may not be able to learn things that require deep reasoning, for example irony. They can only learn basic facts that can be observed within the immediate environment and be understood under such normal context (Ward 1999, p. 130). They may not comprehend why some natural things occur (for example death), or their importance. But they can understand basic logics like simple Mathematical calculation or language. As Bolman and Deal (1997, p. 31) state, learning at this stage can greatly be improved when teaching aids are used.Advertising Looking for essay on edu cation? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Teaching aids are items that can be used to show the learner the practical example of a learning experience. The researcher was involved in a practical session with students in a classroom set up and other outdoor learning activities. Various learning materials were used to help in this session. The session incorporated the teacher, the parent and the researcher, as the adults and knowledge imparters, and children as the knowledge receivers. In this paper, the researcher reports on how he would have improved the learning process stated above. The Childcare Center Activities As stated above, the teaching assistant was involved in a practical session with students in order to help in improving their learning. In this process, the teaching assistant, in junction with the teacher organized a forum where the learners were introduced to various teaching aids to help enhance various subjects. Three subjects were involved in this research. In Mathematics, several aspects were put to test using various plastic materials (McCarthy Carter 1994, p. 129). The intent was to help the student learn basic additions, multiplications and subtractions. In Science, the learning sessions involved use of the school garden. This was to help the learners understand the immediate environment. As Gardner (2006, p. 76) says, at this stage, learning can be enhanced by incorporating it as part of their play. Children of this age enjoy playing. The easiest way of ensuring that children learn some of the basic knowledge in to involve play in learning process. Leithwood and Steinbach (1999, p. 78) agree with this point. This scholar says that from very early stage, learning has always been viewed as a form of punishment, or an oppressive procedure that one has to undergo in order to achieve benefits that at that stage may not be comprehendible. By involving plays in the learning process, Austin (2007, p. 57) says that a child may not realize that he is subjected to a learning process. Literature was learnt through the use of Chinese New Year dragon story, while language was enhanced through the telephone call.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Supporting Children’s Care Learning and Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effectiveness of the Process and the Role of the Teaching Assistant The process used in this process was very effective in imparting knowledge on the children. In the first activity that involved the use of timer and bottles, the effect of the experiment on the children was appropriately felt by the learners as was evidenced by their response to the various questions that followed the process (Hakim 2000, p. 69). The teaching assistant main role was to help the learners by issuing various instructions on how to use the timer and how to hold the bottles. The teaching assistant had to ensure that learners understand the basic concepts that the lesson had planned to achieve. He would keep in touch with the concerned teacher in ensuring that the learners achieved the most out of this process (Bailey, Doherty, Jago 2005, p. 60). The assistant would intervene in case a certain group of student found difficulty in using any of the timers or the bottles. The teaching assistant also ensured that learners were safe in the entire process In the second case that was meant to help the learners understand how to measure liquids and how volumes differ. This would help them appreciate some basic applications like the amount of water an individual would need to take in a day (Baum, Viens, Slatin 2005, p. 120). In this learning process, the researcher worked hand in hand with the learners in ensuring that the bottles they had were of the expected size and with the right number of holes. Because the students were too young to be left to use the scissors and other sharp objec ts required to create holes, the teaching assistant and the class teacher worked hand in hand to help the learners create the holes and cut the plastic bottles to be of the right size. It was important to involve the learners because it would enhance their skills in artistry (Blank 2004, p. 93). The learning objective was achieved to a fair level as majority of the learners were able to correctly respond to the questions that were asked at the end of the session. However, there were those who could not give the right response to some of the questions (Strauss Corbin 1990, p. 73). This could be attributed to the fact that the learners were involved in more than one learning activity hence they failed to comprehend the aim of the session. The teaching assistant noted that many of the children got exhausted with the process of cutting the plastic bottles that they were unable to comprehend the knowledge that was expected of them. The teaching assistant was keen to ensure that these ch ildren do not spill water on their clothes as a way of ensuring that they remained worm and tidy throughout the learning process.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the next activity that involved bowling, the aim was to enhance learners’ ability to add, subtract or do simple division. This activity was very effective because it took Mathematics to the playing ground. When a pin was knocked down by the soft ball which was thrown at the array of pins, the learners would subtract the number of pins that fell from the original number to get the number of pins that remained. The process also enhanced the children’s accuracy and sportsmanship. By aiming at the pins and knocking some down successfully, such a learner would be enhancing its ability in sports and other activities that required such accuracy. This was an outdoor activity and as would be expected, children were actively involved in running around (Reynolds 2011, p. 25). Because the activity was carried out on the floor, which is a hard surface, the teaching assistant was keen to ensure that children were safe through the entire process. The next learning activity was hom e based and was to be supervised by the parents. This learning process was expected to make the learners understand the objects in the immediate environment. The learners were to be helped by their parent to understand the importance of the immediate objects in the environment, both within the house and in outdoor places. Parents were given the instruction by the teaching assistant of how to help the learner in this process. Of interest were the kitchenwares or other gadgets in the house that posed danger to the children especially when they were left alone in the house. The rationale behind this was to ensure that these young children would know the dangers of some of the home appliances and avoid them, unless with an adult (Bottery 2001, p. 79). Success of this learning activity was tested the following day by a question answer session. It was noted with concern that not all the learners were able to respond the questions correctly. Although this could be attributed to the fact th at some of the learners are slow learners, also evident was the fact that some parents either failed to follow the instruction given by the teaching assistant, or others never made the attempt in the first place. In the Chinese New Year dragon, was done within the school. The main aim of this process was to improve the learners’ imaginative ability. The session involved singing, dancing and storytelling. The session called for a heavy participation of the teaching assistant (Nardi 2001, p. 79). Children were shown a drawing of a dragon and then told a specific story about the Chinese Dragon. A cardboard, a plastic and paints were used in designing the dragon. The teaching assistant, in close collaboration with the teacher, ensured that children were safe from the paints, and that they did not soil their clothes. The intended knowledge was passed in three fold. First, it involved through listening to the story told about the dragon. Then they were to read about the dragon by t hemselves. Finally, with the help of the teaching assistant, but through their own creativity, they were to make the dragon using the available materials. This process was a big success. Although some of them were not able to come up with the right drawing due to their tender age, it was evident that they could create an image of this creature in their mind. Most of the learners found this session very enjoyable and they actively participated on the entire process, either by asking questions during the initial story telling session, or by coming up with a creature that would resemble the one in the story. In the next activity that involved the math scavenger, learners were to be tested of speed. Again it was to sharpen their Mathematical abilities. This activity was designed to appear to be more of a game than a learning process. By introducing the competitive aspect to it, the teacher and the teaching assistant intended to make the students do their best in achieving the desired re sult. This activity required heavy intervention by the teaching assistant (Bush 2003, p. 89). These children would be running from one location to another, trying to be the best in beating the deadline. It would involve fighting for the bottles, bumping into each other or even real fight, in case one of them feels cheated by the other. Such occurrences are dangerous as it may result in harm to the learner (Cheminais 2006, p. 78). The teaching assistant had to ensure that he as constantly in motion among the students, averting any possible collusion and ensuring that there was fairness in picking the bottles. This was important because the process had to be made as competitive as possible. The teaching assistant had to work closely with the teacher, who recorded the results of the students once they completed each stage. This activity was important as it made the children know that life is about struggle and in the struggle, only the best emerge as successful and this would require s ome form of struggle. The telephone activity was a rich source of developing listening and writing skills of the learners. Learners would shift roles as a telephone operator or an information seeker. As an information seeker, the learner would be tested of the ability to take notes and their level of precision (Morrison 2008, p. 167). The teacher and the teaching assistant would be in a position to as to determine the ability of the learner to listen and internalize a piece of spoken information, and then put it down for future references. When a child took the role of telephone operator, the skill to be tested and improved would be expression skills. The teaching assistant would issue instruction to the learners. Because the activity did not involve use of harmful tools and equipments, safety was not a big issue. Teaching assistant therefore concentrated on ensuring that each learner understood the instruction to be followed in this activity. The rationale behind this activity, bes ides enhancing the learners listening and writing skills, was to ensure that the learner would be in a position to respond to telephone calls back at home when such a need would arise. The teaching assistant clearly explained to them how to behave, should such occasion arise at home and there is no adult in the house. The next activity about the garden was to help the learners appreciate nature. Learners were made to understand the effect of plantation on our environment in general. It is a fact that learners at this stage may not be in a position to comprehend the effect of vegetations to our environment in a deeper sense (Darder Rodolfo 2003, p. 89). However, when limited to the garden level, it would be easier to comprehend because of the limited coverage. It would be easy to make them know the beauty of the garden and how this beauty brings about pleasure to those who see it. This activity involved using plastic to cover some plants in the garden as a way of making the learners know how to, and appreciate the need to cover plants during winters. Teaching assistant was actively involved in demonstration of how this process is done. Care had to be taken to ensure that children did not interfere with the plantations (Lindon 2006, p. 145). This was the role of the teaching assistant. The outcome of this learning process was a sign of a big success. Many parents reported that their children were actively participating in tendering the gardens and taking care of other vegetations since the day this activity was carried out. In the next activity that involved bottle with a hole, the intent was to develop the language skills o the learner. The learners were expected to keenly listen to the instruction given by the teacher and write them down in a note form. Freire (2006, p. 125) notes that note taking is a very important activity in the life of a learner from this early stage to the highest level of learning and to one’s entire life. The teaching assistant ensured that all the learners were comfortably seated in positions where they could comfortable write and still be in a position to keenly monitor the proceeding of the learning activity. The teaching assistant created desired holes on the plastic containers for security purposes, and then set up the place for the activity (Austin 2007, p. 87). One child would be taking the notes as the other performs the activity, and then roles would be changed. Planning was important because there was need to ensure that all the requirements for this experiment were made available. The teaching assistant ensured that each of the learners comprehended the instruction at hand and that they would be able to recall this procedure at a later date. Because the focus of this study was one note taking rather than the experiment itself, teaching assistant closely monitored the spelling and the structure of the notes the learners were taking to ensure that they were as per the expectation of the session. Emphasis was laid on the use of bullets in making clear and concise information. The outcome of this process was appealing. Most of the students were able to take notes as per the instruction given, and with precision that was expected. As can be observed, this last category was more of class work than a play session. The teaching assistant took this order of activities with deliberate intention of making the youngsters develop a positive attitude towards learning. They were first made to believe that learning is all fun and laughter. Then the teaching assistant and the teacher made the learners that as they play and have fun, they can as well take notes and relate to various class work assignments. In this last session, it was now play made formal in the context of a classroom. This gradual procedure was important in ensuring that children develop love for class work and learning in general they are made to appreciate the fact that knowledge is everywhere around us, whether at home , in school, in the garden or even at the playgrounds (Griswold 2004, p. 49). Possible Changes that Would Improve the Above Outcome This process was a great success. The teaching assistant realized that children of the age between five and sis learnt in a much better way if teaching prompts were involved in the learning process. However, the teaching assistant strongly believes that this process could be much successful if some adjustments could be done on the entire process. The choice of plastic bottles was a good one because it can be cut and turned into different objects that would meet different requirements (Hurst 2007, p. 50). The way they were used in this learning process was not bad, but the process would have been a bigger success if a few changes would have been implemented. Some of the adjustments that the researcher feels that could be done on the above process include the following: In the first part of this learning process, the researcher would have considered makin g the holes on the bottles with the help of the teacher. The learners would not be not be involved in this process because the aim of this research was not to test their artistry skills, but their ability to use the timer and the already improvised plastic material. This would save time that is spent in class when they are involved in this process (Kohl 2000, p. 67). This would also avert the possibility of the learners getting injuries from the objects used in making the holes, which are obviously sharp and dangerous if carelessly handled. In order to improve their artistry skills, which is eliminated at this stage if this strategy is employed, the teaching assistant recommends that there should just be a pure practical lesson for this, where nothing is expected of the child, but the possibility of improving his creativity. This would help in focusing on one task at a time. As a teaching assistant, it would be easier to assess the progress of the child in the two areas which are eq ually important to the child’s development. In the third activity which involved home based learning, teaching assistant would have improved the performance by following up the activity by a phone call. The process was not successful because some parent did not do the right activity with their children, while other parents completely failed to do the activity completely. In order to ensure that this process received better results, teaching assistant would consider making phone calls to the respective parents just to ensure that they were doing the activity expected of them and that they were doing it right. The follow up would make the parent realize that this process was important and the teacher and the teaching assistant consider it part of a lesson for the learner. This would boost the results of this process. At this stage of learning, children value games so much. The teaching assistant would have considered a little change in the last activity of the session. The last activity registered a success. However, this success would have been enhanced if they were made to believe that this was a game, just like in the previous occasions. Although these students were able to perform the activities before them, the setting of this last activity was more of a classroom than a classroom-play ground setting. The teaching assistant would have considered creating a more relaxed atmosphere where the learners would feel not coerced to perform activities at hand. However, the entire process was a success and the outcome clearly pointed out the importance of using such teaching aids. List of References Aristotle, 1998, The Nicomachean Ethics, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Austin, J 2007, The Art of Teaching, Noir Publishing, New York. Austin, J 2007, The Last Snake Man, Noir Publishing, New York. Bailey, R Doherty, J Jago, R 2005, Physical Development and Physical education in learning in the early years, Paul Chapman, London. Crotty, M 2003, The Foundations of Social Research: meaning and perspective in the research process, Sage, London. Baum, S, Viens, J Slatin, B 2005, Multiple intelligences in the elementary classroom: a teacher’s toolkit, Teachers College Press, New York. Blank, 2004, â€Å"Teaching qualitative data analysis to graduate students†, Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 22, no. 2, pp 187-196. Bolman, L Deal, T 1997, Reframing Organizations: artistry, choice and leadership, Jossey Bass, San Francisco. Bottery, M 2001, â€Å"Globalization and the UK competition state: no room for transformational leadership in education?† School Leadership and Management, Vol. 21, no. 1, pp 34-78. Bush, T 2003, Theories of Educational Management, Sage, London. Cheminais, R 2006, Every Child Matters: A practical guide for teachers, David Fulton Publishers, London. Cogan, D Webb, J 2002, Introducing children’s literature, Routledge, New York. Darder, A Rodolfo, D 2003, The critical pedagogy reader, Routled ge, New York. Freire, P 2006, Pedagogy of the oppressed Continuum International Publishing Group, Wiley, New York. Gardner, H 2006, Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons, Basic Books, New York. Griswold, J 2004, The meaning of ‘Beauty The beast’: a handbook, Broadview Press, New York. Hakim, C 2000, Research Design: Sucessful Designs for Social and Economic Research, Routledge, New York. Hansen, D 2007, Ethical Visions of Education, Teachers College Press, New York. Hurst, C 2007, Social Inequality, Pearson Education, Boston. Kohl, H 2000,The Discipline of Hope: Learning from a Lifetime of Teaching. New York: New Press. Leedy, P Ormrod 2005, Practical Research: Planning and Design, Pearson, Prentice Hall. Leithwood, K Steinbach, R 1999, Changing Leadership for Changing Times, Open University Press, Buckingham. Lindon, J 2006, Equality In Early Childhood: Linking Theory and Practice, Hodder Arnold, London. McCarthy, M Carter, R 1994, Language as Discourse: Perspective s for Language Teaching, Longman Group, Essex. Morrison, G 2008, Early Childhood Education Today, Pearson Education, New York. Nardi, D 2001, Multiple Intelligence and Personality Type, Telos Publications, New York. Nussbaum, M 2002, For Love of Country? Beacon Press, Boston. Reynolds, K 2011, Children’s literature: a very short introduction, Oxford Press, Gosport. Strauss, A Corbin, J 1990, Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques, Sage Publications, Newbury Park. Ward, K 1999, Cyber-ethnography, and the emergence of the virtually new community, Journal of Information Technology 14: 95-105 Zipes, J 1997, Happily ever after: fairy tales, children and the culture industry, Routledge, New York. This essay on Supporting Children’s Care Learning and Development was written and submitted by user Br0therh00d0fEv1lMutants to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Comparison between MLA and APA Formatting

Comparison between MLA and APA Formatting In the world of academia, sharing of knowledge plays a key role in development of a given area of knowledge. For instance, a researcher will look for information from existing researches in order to develop his thesis. As a result, referencing is an integral part of academia. Consequently, this paper seeks to shed light on how to utilize Internet resources in research and what to look for when researching and also show comparison between MLA and APA formatting.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Comparison between MLA and APA Formatting specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More APA formatting is highly used in referencing works cited in social science. In APA, the research work should be written in an essay form that is comprised of four main sections namely; the title page, abstract, main body and references. The title page must consist of the title of the paper, the name of the person who wrote it and the institution in which the writer is a student. Since the abstract seeks to explain the contents of the paper, it should contain the major points within the body. Then the main body of the research work should follow suit. It should contain a brief introduction, body and conclusion. Finally references should be provided in order to form a reference list and can also be used to build the in-text reference (Stolley par. 4). Other than APA, one can also opt to use MLA as his referencing style. The two styles are different. The following are some of the differences between MLA and APA. MLA (Modern Language Association) does not use headings and subheadings in their essays while APA (American Psychological Association) has several levels of headings and subheadings. When it comes to in-text citations, MLA uses signal phrase i.e. authors name then page number in brackets. For example; According to Charles Darwin, the world is evolving at alarming rate (50). Alternatively there can be no signal phrase with autho r name and page number in brackets (Rusell, Brizee Angeli 24). For example; it is seen that, â€Å"the world is evolving at an alarming rate† (Darwin 50). On the other hand APA uses signal phrase with author name then date in brackets i.e. Darwin (1998), noted that the world is evolving at an alarming rate or alternatively use of phrase with direct quote i.e. Darwin (1998) has indicated how â€Å"world has evolved at an alarming rate† (p.50). Another difference is block quotation where in MLA, the block quotations are used when the quotation is more than four lines long in the original text while in APA block quotations are used when quotation is more than forty words. Also it is worth to note that in MLA formatting both names of the author(s) are written in full starting with the last name and then the first name separated by a coma while in APA the author last name is written in full but the first name is designated with initials.Advertising Looking for essa y on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In MLA, the sources that are used to cite the research work are known as the works cited while in APA the very sources used to cite the research work are known as the reference list. However it should be noted that different articles have different formatting therefore it depends on the choice of the writer whether to use APA or MLA (UC Berkley Teaching Library Internet Workshops). A number of factors should be considered when utilizing Internet resources. First, one should always analyze the topic and search with a focused vision and this involves creating tools that would help in the process of searching. Such tools include directories and search engines. Second, it involves evaluating the web pages in order to ensure quality and authenticity of the research work. Third, the author should determine the style sheets for citing resources (i.e. MLA or APA). This should put into consideration both print and electronic. Last but not least an individual is expected to make a glossary of web and internet. When using Internet resources for research work, one should always open a new tab when searching for a different article. This is important because it makes it easier for the referencing work and also helps in avoidance of repetition of facts in the essay. An individual is expected to look for the bibliography of the research topic in order to obtain the reference list that will also be used in citation of the in-text (Stolley par. 7). Russell, Tony, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. MLA Formatting and Style Guide. The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 4 Apr. 2010. Web. Stolley, Karl. MLA Formatting and Style Guide. The OWL at Purdue. 10 May 2006. Purdue University Writing Lab. 28 January 2011.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Comparison between MLA and APA Formatting specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn Mo re UC Berkley-Teaching Library Internet Workshops. Tutorial Table of Contents, 2005. Web.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Ask a Literary Publicist Vol 2 First Steps and Social

Ask a Literary Publicist Vol 2 First Steps and Social Ask an Award-Winning Literary Publicist #2 First Steps and Social Media Sandra Goroff is a veteran award-winning literary publicist with Reedsy. Over her illustrious 30-year (and counting) career, she has worked in-house at Houghton Mifflin and represented authors the likes of Clive Cussler, Maurice Sendak, Chris Van Allsburg, Hollywood legend Kirk Douglas, and former president Jimmy Carter.In her second guest post, Sandy will answer questions submitted by authors, shining some light on how to best approach publicity as an author.(Face)book publicityQ: â€Å"What does a publicist cover in today’s social media environment?†You are right that social media has changed the landscape of publicity. It has transformed much, but not all of it. It is only one (albeit an important one) of the many tools and venues we use to promote our work, and, in this instance, books and authors.The social networksThe benefit that professional publicists bring to the process is all about experience, access and contacts.   An experienced publicist brings years of strong working relationships to the table. They know how to develop story angles, use the news, find the journalists and writers, match you with appropriate media (print, broadcast and social), build upon your core audience, and maximize exposure. In addition, they understand timing, how to work (or not work) with bookstores, set up events, and, when needed, how to collaborate with an in-house team.This does not mean that a hard-working author - even a first time author - cannot do this by themselves, for themselves. It means that most of time, a good publicist can do it faster and more effectively, with all the right contacts and know-how already in place. The learning curve for first time writers (or all authors who are writers and not publicists) is steep. And while all things are possible, it depends on how hard you want to work and whether you are familiar with this often overwhelming world. Is there anything you’d like to ask Sandy about book publicity? Drop your question  at this link  and it might feature in our next column.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Managing operations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Managing operations - Essay Example The notion includes the process of delivering the services to the customers with the products. With the changing time the aspects covered are increasing, the process now also includes R&D, value creation, marketing management, sales activities, accounting and finance. Most of the physical assets remain unchanged. These include buildings, land, manufacturing plants, warehouses etc. Planning, operating and controlling are the important constituents of transformation process. The improvement in the system is also an important aim of the model. Outputs consist of products and services and may even be information, such as that provided by a consulting organisation. (Koontz and Weihrich, 1994; p 633, 634) Time network analysis is a logical extension of the famous Gantt chart. Often referred to as the program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) an in its essentials as the Critical Path Method (CPM), this technique of planning and control has wide potential use in many applications. But PERT and its various refinements, like PERT/COST, have considerable potential for use in many aspects of planning and controlling operations. (Koontz and Weihrich, 1994; p.648) A product can be improved and its cost lowered through value engineering, which consists of analysing the operations of the product or service, estimating the value of each operation, and attempting to improve that operation by trying to keep costs low at each step or part. The following specific steps are suggested: Work methods can be improved through work simplification, which is the process of obtaining the participation of workers in simplifying their work. Training sessions are conducted to teach concepts and principles of techniques such as time and motion studies, workflow analyses, and the layout of the work situation. (Koontz and Weihrich, 1994; p.648) A quality control circle, or simply quality circle (QC); is a group of people from the same organisational area who meet regularly